Ballet Music by Matthew Naughtin download in pdf, ePub, iPad
In Britain an even more dramatic development took place. One centre in which the male dancer held his own was Copenhagen, where the Paris-trained August Bournonville directed the ballet for many years. She brought her art to millions who had never seen ballet before, and she became in the process a veritable icon.
Gradually, dancing became more daring, with men lifting the ballerinas into the air. While the one-act ballet that Diaghilev had introduced became the norm in the West, Soviet ballet remained wedded to the multiact form. Ballet music was an accompaniment for the solo and ensemble dances. The Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo continued the Diaghilev tradition by commissioning leading artists and composers to collaborate in the ballets. Independently of the Ballets Russes, Anna Pavlova traveled the world with her own company of supporting dancers.
London was another important centre of ballet at this time, but there ballet was largely an imported form, dominated by visiting stars from the Continent and by French choreographers. There was great rivalry between the two companies, which in appeared simultaneously in London. This was a story told without any words. The development of ballet in the United States has been no less dramatic. Blum broke with de Basil in to form his own short-lived company with Fokine as ballet master, while de Basil directed his own company under various names until his death.
At the same time, an awareness of the historical traditions of Russian ballet was returning, and some of the classic ballets of the previous century were reintroduced into the repertoire. The Imperial Ballet paid great attention to the training of its dancers, and an essentially Russian style emerged in the company. For example, critics of the Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky mentioned his writing of ballet music as something demeaning.
Notwithstanding its imperial and aristocratic associations, ballet in the Soviet Union survived and flourished, although it took a different course than ballet in western Europe. Although the other ballet masters, Jean Dauberval and Maximilien Gardel, forced Noverre out of the organization, they were no less committed to the new genre he had introduced. Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake was the first musical ballet piece to be created by a symphonic composer. Meanwhile, ballet had also taken root in other European cities, most notably in Vienna and in Italian cities such as Milan and Naples. Although the country has no national ballet, its leading companies stand comparison with the principal national companies of Europe.
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