Ecological Rationality by Peter M. Todd download in pdf, ePub, iPad
Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness. When a decision could be made based on recognition, there was activation in the medial parietal cortex, which can be attributed to reliance on recognition memory. For example, the provision of clear cue rankings may facilitate the subsequent use of non-compensatory strategies. This suggests that evaluating whether recognition should be applied on a specific item is an effortful process that requires some time.
Empirical tests or the recognition heuristic. Intelligence in the world. In the former, information-intensive strategies are appropriate, whereas the latter favors simple strategies because some information may be ignored without leading to a performance decrement. The limited value of precise tests of the recognition heuristic.
The role of age and prior beliefs in contingency judgment. Outlook Linking evidence from behavioral, computational, and neural analyses seems crucial to fully understand how aging impacts decision making. Importantly, behavioral evidence suggests that this evaluation process requires considerable cognitive resources. Indeed, older adults seem to avoid strategies that rely heavily on memory retrieval in inference tasks i. How forgetting aids heuristic inference.
Application of the diffusion model to two-choice tasks for adults years old. For instance, Pachur et al. In this study participants repeatedly had to indicate which of two cities they thought was larger.
Depending on the structure of the environment, this loss of accuracy might be small. Intelligence in the World. Alternatively, one may want to change the task characteristics to fit the decision strategies of the elderly.
Specifically, the analysis revealed systematic age differences in risk taking in tasks where the probabilities of outcomes had to be learned from repeated exposure decisions from experience. Evidence for such age-related decrements in item adaptivity was found by Pachur et al. It turned out that inferences were more likely to follow recognition under time pressure than without time pressure.
Specifically, older adults in Mata et al. Rational choice theory therefore cashes out practical rationality as the optimal path of action given one's subjective representation of reality. In a neuroimaging study, Khader et al. Some findings suggest that aging can lead to difficulties in strategy execution.
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