The Jews in Christian Europe by Marc Saperstein download in pdf, ePub, iPad
Religious leaders including Bishops and Archbishops alike tried to spare the Jews from violence. The proper term for it is anti-Semitism. Marcus claims that the time is written off as a time of intolerance against Jews living in Europe.
Several Polish noblemen of the Middle Ages showed special favor to Jews who immigrated because of persecution in Germany, coupled with a Polish desire for Jewish expertise in commerce. Documentation of this sort is important, but it is ineffective unless it is implemented from the pulpit and in church publications and educational materials.
To no avail, the Jews were burned alive. Such conversions proved particularly devastating for the English and Spanish Jewish communities. Jonathan Elukin is one historian who thinks in this vein, as elucidated in his book Living Together, Living Apart. Despite this bigotry, German Jews continued to practice, refine, and evolve their religious and social customs, including the development of the Yiddish language and an identity as Ashkenazi Jews. In that way, he argued, the Jews could become a people like all other peoples, and antisemitism would cease to exist.
They built new synagogues. Harsh infringements of Jewish rights are censured at the same time that restrictions are imposed on their full participation in society. And to prevent the baseness and avarice of wicked men we forbid anyone to deface or damage their cemeteries or to extort money from them by threatening to exhume the bodies of their dead.
Hard fighting and harsh words were no strangers to religious strife among post Jews. There was about this exchange, however, one tragic detail. Further, these elected members were given the authority to judge cases between Jews in a court of law. When nothing of the sort happened, he denounced them in a set of pamphlets written in vituperative fury. Franciscan friars exerted pressure on the dukes to enforce the wearing of yellow badges by Jews which the dukes resisted.
It must have fixed in the popular mind the conviction that the Jews had crucified Jesus and that their descendents bore hereditary guilt for the deed because they had never repudiated it. Furthermore, there were also attacks on the Jews that lived in cities along the Rhine. The Christian communions have at least made a start. Christian violence towards Jews was rife, as were ritual murder accusations, expulsions, and extortion.
The pressure on Jews to accept Christianity was intense. The medieval Jewry's heyday occurred with the zenith of the country's political and economical development, during the reign of King Matthias.
They studied the secular sciences with the same zeal as the Bible and Talmud. Yeshivot were established, under the direction of the rabbis, in the more prominent communities. Most fled to Poland, as it had a reputation for religious tolerance unparalleled during this era. While many Jews rose to prominence in these times, Judaism was mostly practiced in private to avoid persecution. What set his followers apart was the claim that God had raised him up from the dead.
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