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The Political Economy of the Dutch Republic by Oscar Gelderblom download in pdf, ePub, iPad

This gave employment to professional

Venice had important connections with Northern Europe. But there were other institutional libraries. News from Italy, Germany etc. They were produced in truly enormous numbers almost exclusively for the British market.

This gave employment to professional scribes, bookbinders, specialists in ornamented calligraphy and illustration. Another important field was book production. Angelo Barovier, the most famous glassblower of the fifteenth century, perfected the process for making crystal.

Venice secured commercial privileges exemption from excise taxes from Byzantium in in return for help in bolstering its naval defences. One of the cities that received them with open arms was Leiden, home of the first university of the Dutch Republic. Amsterdam had its Jewish quarter, but it was not a ghetto. Education stimulated cultural and intellectual life.

Another important field was book production

France now printed its own works, books were printed and published in Switzerland, the German book trade expanded, and other causes as well. Although international trade, banking, shipbuilding and associated trades in timber, carpentry, rope and sailmaking etc.

Here too, Venice managed to establish a privileged trading relationship, buying a large part of the Asian spices which the Karimi merchants of Alexandria brought to Egypt from Asia via the Red Sea. Readers and Private and Public Libraries The availability of a large volume of books for domestic consumption points to a substantial reading public in the Dutch Republic. It adjusted amazingly well to political changes. There were major changes in ship construction and navigation techniques between the tenth and fourteenth centuries.

It was operative for centuries, and employed thousands of workers. International competition became fiercer, and the markets where the Dutch had once ruled were no exception. In Frankfurt the Dutch booksellers also worked as middlemen for colleagues in other countries who could not come to the fairs themselves.

Venice was the most successful of the North Italian city states in creating and maintaining a republic dominated by a merchant capitalist elite. Compared to its neighbours, the Dutch Republic was an extraordinary political entity. The two main changes were in the rigging of round ships and the development of firearms during the fifteenth century.

Venice quickly became the principal Italian typographical centre, and one of the biggest in Europe. Later there were civic records, histories, translations of Aristotle and other Greek texts destined for the libraries of San Marco, ducal, civic and private collectors.